Also seeBenzeneOil refining in Australia
Grouping and IntegrationPetrochemicals may be broadly broken down into two groups, derived from;
|methane and ethane (ie. C1 and C2, or gas-based) or from;||propane or butanes (C3 and C4, or naphtha or oil-based).|
Petrochemicals can be broadly broken down into two groups - derived
from methane and ethane (gas-based) and from propane and butane (oil-based).
Methane is the largest component of natural gas (typically 90 per
cent) and is used after conversion to the more flexible synthesis gas
(syngas). It can produce a broad range of chemicals including methanol,
formaldehyde and chemical intermediates and the fertilisers, ammonia, urea,
ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate.
Ethane is the second most common component of feedstocks used to
produce polyethylenes and PVC. Via a chloralkali plant, (used to produce
the chlorine primarily required for PVC) ethane feedstock may thereby be
linked to the production of titanium dioxide pigment, silicones and titanium
metal that require chlorine in the production chain.
Propane is a component of LPG but is commonly produced at petroleum
refineries and by the cracking of naphtha. Propanes (or C3) are used to
produce polypropylene, acrylics, and with ammonia and via cyclohexane (from
benzene), acrylonitrile and caprolactam (to produce nylons).
Butanes (C4) is available from LPG gas but commonly produced from
naphtha cracking. It provides the butyl component in ABS, rubbers and MTBE
(an antiknock fuel additive).
The breakdown provides some
indication of potential relationships, such as between ammonia used in
fertiliser plants (to produce ammonium nitrate, phosphates, urea etc.)
and its use to produce acrylonitrile, caprolactams etc. Oxygen plays a
part in such petrochemicals as ethylene and propylene oxide, glycols, non
ionic surfactants, acrylics etc.
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